**mathematician** | | |

*n. (person)* | **1**. **mathematician** | a person skilled in mathematics. |

| ~ math, mathematics, maths | a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement. |

| ~ algebraist | a mathematician whose specialty is algebra. |

| ~ arithmetician | someone who specializes in arithmetic. |

| ~ geometer, geometrician | a mathematician specializing in geometry. |

| ~ number theorist | a mathematician specializing in number theory. |

| ~ probability theorist | a mathematician who specializes in probability theory. |

| ~ scientist | a person with advanced knowledge of one or more sciences. |

| ~ mathematical statistician, statistician | a mathematician who specializes in statistics. |

| ~ trigonometrician | a mathematician specializing in trigonometry. |

| ~ abel, niels abel, niels henrik abel | Norwegian mathematician (1802-1829). |

| ~ al-hasan ibn al-haytham, al-haytham, alhacen, alhazen, ibn al-haytham | an Egyptian polymath (born in Iraq) whose research in geometry and optics was influential into the 17th century; established experiments as the norm of proof in physics (died in 1040). |

| ~ archimedes | Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287-212 BC). |

| ~ bayes, thomas bayes | English mathematician for whom Bayes' theorem is named (1702-1761). |

| ~ jacques bernoulli, jakob bernoulli, james bernoulli, bernoulli | Swiss mathematician (1654-1705). |

| ~ jean bernoulli, johann bernoulli, john bernoulli, bernoulli | Swiss mathematician (1667-1748). |

| ~ bessel, friedrich wilhelm bessel | German mathematician and astronomer who made accurate measurements of stellar distances and who predicted the existence on an 8th planet (1784-1846). |

| ~ boole, george boole | English mathematician; creator of Boolean algebra (1815-1864). |

| ~ bowditch, nathaniel bowditch | United States mathematician and astronomer noted for his works on navigation (1773-1838). |

| ~ condorcet, marie jean antoine nicolas caritat, marquis de condorcet | French mathematician and philosopher (1743-1794). |

| ~ descartes, rene descartes | French philosopher and mathematician; developed dualistic theory of mind and matter; introduced the use of coordinates to locate a point in two or three dimensions (1596-1650). |

| ~ diophantus | Greek mathematician who was the first to try to develop an algebraic notation (3rd century). |

| ~ eratosthenes | Greek mathematician and astronomer who estimated the circumference of the earth and the distances to the Moon and sun (276-194 BC). |

| ~ euler, leonhard euler | Swiss mathematician (1707-1783). |

| ~ fermat, pierre de fermat | French mathematician who founded number theory; contributed (with Pascal) to the theory of probability (1601-1665). |

| ~ baron jean baptiste joseph fourier, fourier, jean baptiste joseph fourier | French mathematician who developed Fourier analysis and studied the conduction of heat (1768-1830). |

| ~ evariste galois, galois | French mathematician who described the conditions for solving polynomial equations; was killed in a duel at the age of 21 (1811-1832). |

| ~ karl friedrich gauss, karl gauss, gauss | German mathematician who developed the theory of numbers and who applied mathematics to electricity and magnetism and astronomy and geodesy (1777-1855). |

| ~ godel, kurt godel | United States mathematician (born in Austria) who is remembered principally for demonstrating the limitations of axiomatic systems (1906-1978). |

| ~ hamilton, sir william rowan hamilton, william rowan hamilton | Irish mathematician (1806-1865). |

| ~ hero of alexandria, heron, hero | Greek mathematician and inventor who devised a way to determine the area of a triangle and who described various mechanical devices (first century). |

| ~ david hilbert, hilbert | German mathematician (1862-1943). |

| ~ hipparchus | Greek astronomer and mathematician who discovered the precession of the equinoxes and made the first known star chart and is said to have invented trigonometry (second century BC). |

| ~ jacobi, karl gustav jacob jacobi | German mathematician (1804-1851). |

| ~ felix klein, klein | German mathematician who created the Klein bottle (1849-1925). |

| ~ kronecker, leopold kronecker | German mathematician (1823-1891). |

| ~ laplace, marquis de laplace, pierre simon de laplace | French mathematician and astronomer who formulated the nebular hypothesis concerning the origins of the solar system and who developed the theory of probability (1749-1827). |

| ~ gottfried wilhelm leibnitz, gottfried wilhelm leibniz, leibnitz, leibniz | German philosopher and mathematician who thought of the universe as consisting of independent monads and who devised a system of the calculus independent of Newton (1646-1716). |

| ~ lobachevsky, nikolai ivanovich lobachevsky | Russian mathematician who independently discovered non-Euclidean geometry (1792-1856). |

| ~ benoit mandelbrot, mandelbrot | French mathematician (born in Poland) noted for inventing fractals (born in 1924). |

| ~ andre markoff, andrei markov, markoff, markov | Russian mathematician (1856-1922). |

| ~ hermann minkowski, minkowski | German mathematician (born in Russia) who suggested the concept of four-dimensional space-time (1864-1909). |

| ~ august f. mobius, august ferdinand mobius, mobius | German mathematician responsible for the Mobius strip (1790-1868). |

| ~ johann muller, regiomontanus, muller | German mathematician and astronomer (1436-1476). |

| ~ john napier, napier | Scottish mathematician who invented logarithms; introduced the use of the decimal point in writing numbers (1550-1617). |

| ~ isaac newton, newton, sir isaac newton | English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1642-1727). |

| ~ emmy noether, noether | German mathematician (1882-1935). |

| ~ omar khayyam | Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald's translation (1050-1123). |

| ~ blaise pascal, pascal | French mathematician and philosopher and Jansenist; invented an adding machine; contributed (with Fermat) to the theory of probability (1623-1662). |

| ~ benjamin peirce, peirce | United States mathematician and astronomer remembered for his studies of Uranus and Saturn and Neptune (1809-1880). |

| ~ pythagoras | Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem; considered to be the first true mathematician (circa 580-500 BC). |

| ~ bernhard riemann, georg friedrich bernhard riemann, riemann | pioneer of non-Euclidean geometry (1826-1866). |

| ~ alan mathison turing, alan turing, turing | English mathematician who conceived of the Turing machine and broke German codes during World War II (1912-1954). |

| ~ oswald veblen, veblen | United States mathematician (1880-1960). |

| ~ paul vernier, vernier | French mathematician who described the vernier scale (1580-1637). |

| ~ john von neumann, neumann, von neumann | United States mathematician who contributed to the development of atom bombs and of stored-program digital computers (1903-1957). |

| ~ andre weil, weil | United States mathematician (born in France) (1906-1998). |

| ~ alfred north whitehead, whitehead | English philosopher and mathematician who collaborated with Bertrand Russell (1861-1947). |

| ~ norbert wiener, wiener | United States mathematician and founder of cybernetics (1894-1964). |

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