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kimika [ki.mi.ka.] : chemistry (n.)
[ Etymology: Spanish: quimica: chemistry ]

Derivatives of kimika

n. (cognition)1. chemical science, chemistrythe science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions.
~ electronegativity, negativity(chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond.
~ atomic mass, atomic weight, relative atomic mass(chemistry) the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units.
~ molecular weight, relative molecular mass(chemistry) the sum of the relative atomic masses of the constituent atoms of a molecule.
~ valence, valency(chemistry) a property of atoms or radicals; their combining power given in terms of the number of hydrogen atoms (or the equivalent).
~ ph, ph scale(from potential of Hydrogen) the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per liter; provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (where 7 is neutral and greater than 7 is more basic and less than 7 is more acidic).
~ dalton's law of partial pressures, law of partial pressures, dalton's law(chemistry and physics) law stating that the pressure exerted by a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture; the pressure of a gas in a mixture equals the pressure it would exert if it occupied the same volume alone at the same temperature.
~ distribution law(chemistry) the total energy in an assembly of molecules is not distributed equally but is distributed around an average value according to a statistical distribution.
~ equilibrium law, law of chemical equilibrium(chemistry) the principle that (at chemical equilibrium) in a reversible reaction the ratio of the rate of the forward reaction to the rate of the reverse reaction is a constant for that reaction.
~ henry's law(chemistry) law formulated by the English chemist William Henry; the amount of a gas that will be absorbed by water increases as the gas pressure increases.
~ law of constant proportion, law of definite proportions(chemistry) law stating that every pure substance always contains the same elements combined in the same proportions by weight.
~ law of equivalent proportions, law of reciprocal proportions(chemistry) law stating that the proportions in which two elements separately combine with a third element are also the proportions in which they combine together.
~ dalton's law, law of multiple proportions(chemistry) law stating that when two elements can combine to form more than one compound the amounts of one of them that combines with a fixed amount of the other will exhibit a simple multiple relation.
~ law of mass action(chemistry) the law that states the following principle: the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the molecular concentrations of the reacting substances.
~ mendeleev's law, periodic law(chemistry) the principle that chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
~ natural sciencethe sciences involved in the study of the physical world and its phenomena.
~ chemoimmunology, immunochemistrythe field of chemistry concerned with chemical processes in immunology (such as chemical studies of antigens and antibodies).
~ organic chemistrythe chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to substances synthesized artificially).
~ organic chemistrythe chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to substances synthesized artificially).
~ inorganic chemistrythe chemistry of compounds that do not contain hydrocarbon radicals.
~ physical chemistrythe branch of chemistry dealing with the physical properties of chemical substances.
~ electrochemistrybranch of chemistry that deals with the chemical action of electricity and the production of electricity by chemical reactions.
~ femtochemistrythe branch of chemistry that studies elementary (often very fast) chemical reactions as they occur; the experimental methods are often based on the use of femtosecond laser pulses.
~ geochemistrythe chemistry of the earth's crust.
~ photochemistrybranch of chemistry that deals with the chemical action of light.
~ nuclear chemistry, radiochemistrythe chemistry of radioactive substances.
~ surface chemistrythe branch of chemistry that studies processes occurring at interfaces between phases (especially those between liquid and gas).
~ atomist theory, atomistic theory, atomic theory, atomism(chemistry) any theory in which all matter is composed of tiny discrete finite indivisible indestructible particles.; "the ancient Greek philosophers Democritus and Epicurus held atomic theories of the universe"
~ arrhenius theory of dissociation, theory of dissociation, theory of electrolytic dissociation(chemistry) theory that describes aqueous solutions in terms of acids (which dissociate to give hydrogen ions) and bases (which dissociate to give hydroxyl ions); the product of an acid and a base is a salt and water.
~ ostwald's theory of indicators, theory of indicators(chemistry) the theory that all indicators are either weak acids or weak bases in which the color of the ionized form is different from the color before dissociation.
~ thermochemistrythe branch of chemistry that studies the relation between chemical action and the amount of heat absorbed or generated.
~ migration(chemistry) the nonrandom movement of an atom or radical from one place to another within a molecule.
~ allomerism(chemistry) variability in chemical composition without variation in crystalline form.
~ sublimation(chemistry) a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid.
~ periodic table(chemistry) a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements according to atomic number as based on the periodic law.
~ chemical chain, chain(chemistry) a series of linked atoms (generally in an organic molecule).
~ closed chain, ring(chemistry) a chain of atoms in a molecule that forms a closed loop.
~ long-chain molecule, long chain(chemistry) a relatively long chain of atoms in a molecule.
~ chemista scientist who specializes in chemistry.
~ chemical phenomenonany natural phenomenon involving chemistry (as changes to atoms or molecules).
~ pleomorphism, polymorphism(chemistry) the existence of different kinds of crystal of the same chemical compound.
~ dimorphism(chemistry) the property of certain substances that enables them to exist in two distinct crystalline forms.
~ absorption, soaking up(chemistry) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid.
~ association(chemistry) any process of combination (especially in solution) that depends on relatively weak chemical bonding.
~ chemical action, chemical change, chemical process(chemistry) any process determined by the atomic and molecular composition and structure of the substances involved.
~ chemical reaction, reaction(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others.; "there was a chemical reaction of the lime with the ground water"
~ chemical decomposition reaction, decomposition reaction, decomposition(chemistry) separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance.
~ displacement reaction, displacement(chemistry) a reaction in which an elementary substance displaces and sets free a constituent element from a compound.
~ dissociation(chemistry) the temporary or reversible process in which a molecule or ion is broken down into smaller molecules or ions.
~ electrolysis(chemistry) a chemical decomposition reaction produced by passing an electric current through a solution containing ions.
~ imbibition(chemistry) the absorption of a liquid by a solid or gel.
~ osmosis(biology, chemistry) diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal.
~ reverse osmosis(chemistry) a method of producing pure water; a solvent passes through a semipermeable membrane in a direction opposite to that for natural osmosis when it is subjected to a hydrostatic pressure greater than the osmotic pressure.
~ rectification(chemistry) the process of refinement or purification of a substance by distillation.
~ acid value(chemistry) the amount of free acid present in fat as measured by the milligrams of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize it.; "as the glycerides in fat slowly decompose the acid value increases"
~ equilibrium constant(chemistry) the ratio of concentrations when equilibrium is reached in a reversible reaction (when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction).
~ abundance(chemistry) the ratio of the total mass of an element in the earth's crust to the total mass of the earth's crust; expressed as a percentage or in parts per million.
~ stoichiometry(chemistry) the relation between the quantities of substances that take part in a reaction or form a compound (typically a ratio of whole integers).
~ saturation point(chemistry) the stage at which a substance will receive no more of another substance in solution or in a vapor.
~ state of matter, state(chemistry) the three traditional states of matter are solids (fixed shape and volume) and liquids (fixed volume and shaped by the container) and gases (filling the container).; "the solid state of water is called ice"
~ activity(chemistry) the capacity of a substance to take part in a chemical reaction.; "catalytic activity"
~ multivalence, multivalency, polyvalence, polyvalency(chemistry) the state of having a valence greater than two.
~ acceptor(chemistry) in the formation of a coordinate bond it is the compound to which electrons are donated.
~ mixture(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding).
~ atom(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element.
~ monad(chemistry) an atom having a valence of one.
~ chemical group, radical, group(chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule.
~ fullerenea form of carbon having a large molecule consisting of an empty cage of sixty or more carbon atoms.
~ actinide series(chemistry) a series of 15 radioactive elements with increasing atomic numbers from actinium to lawrencium.
~ emulsion(chemistry) a colloid in which both phases are liquids.; "an oil-in-water emulsion"
~ molecule(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound.
~ catalyst, accelerator(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected.
~ sensitiser, sensitizer(chemistry) a substance other than a catalyst that facilitates the start of a catalytic reaction.
~ anticatalyst(chemistry) a substance that retards a chemical reaction or diminishes the activity of a catalyst.
~ buffer(chemistry) an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH.
~ chemical compound, compound(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight.
~ foryml(chemistry) the negative univalent acyl radical CHO that occurs in aldehydes.
~ fluorocarbona halocarbon in which some hydrogen atoms have been replaced by fluorine; used in refrigerators and aerosols.
~ indicator(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance; can be used to indicate the completion of a chemical reaction or (in medicine) to test for a particular reaction.
~ convertchange in nature, purpose, or function; undergo a chemical change.; "The substance converts to an acid"
~ deadenconvert (metallic mercury) into a grey powder consisting of minute globules, as by shaking with chalk or fatty oil.
~ alkalinise, alkalinizemake (a substance) alkaline.; "The oxide is alkalized"
~ alkalinise, alkalinizebecome alkaline.
~ equilibratebring to a chemical stasis or equilibrium.
~ alchemise, alchemizealter (elements) by alchemy.
~ suspendcause to be held in suspension in a fluid.; "suspend the particles"
~ resuspendput back into suspension.; "resuspend particles"
~ scavenge, cleanremove unwanted substances from.
~ includeadd as part of something else; put in as part of a set, group, or category.; "We must include this chemical element in the group"
~ butylateintroduce the butyl group into a chemical compound.
~ iodise, iodizetreat with iodine.; "iodize salt"
~ nitratetreat with nitric acid, so as to change an organic compound into a nitrate.; "nitroglycerin is obtained by nitrating glycerol"
~ stripremove a constituent from a liquid.
~ decompose, break down, break upseparate (substances) into constituent elements or parts.
~ dissociateto undergo a reversible or temporary breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms.; "acids dissociate to give hydrogen ions"
~ batesoak in a special solution to soften and remove chemicals used in previous treatments.; "bate hides and skins"
~ attenuate, rarefyweaken the consistency of (a chemical substance).
~ moonshinedistill (alcohol) illegally; produce moonshine.
~ distill, distilundergo the process of distillation.
~ distil, distill, extractextract by the process of distillation.; "distill the essence of this compound"
~ deoxidise, deoxidize, reduceto remove oxygen from a compound, or cause to react with hydrogen or form a hydride, or to undergo an increase in the number of electrons.
~ crackbreak into simpler molecules by means of heat.; "The petroleum cracked"
~ crackreduce (petroleum) to a simpler compound by cracking.
~ catabolise, catabolizesubject to catabolism.
~ oxidise, oxidate, oxidizeadd oxygen to or combine with oxygen.
~ acetify, acidifyturn acidic.; "the solution acetified"
~ alkalify, alkalise, alkalize, basifyturn basic and less acidic.; "the solution alkalized"
~ reformbreak up the molecules of.; "reform oil"
~ reformproduce by cracking.; "reform gas"
~ polymerise, polymerizeundergo polymerization.
~ copolymerise, copolymerizepolymerize together.; "the two substances copolymerized"
~ polymerise, polymerizecause (a compound) to polymerize.
~ catalyse, catalyzechange by catalysis or cause to catalyze.
~ peptise, peptizedisperse in a medium into a colloidal state.
~ resublimesublime (a compound) once again.
~ calcineheat a substance so that it oxidizes or reduces.
~ carbonise, carbonize, carburise, carburizeunite with carbon.; "carburize metal"
~ transmutealter the nature of (elements).
~ conjugateunite chemically so that the product is easily broken down into the original compounds.
~ admixmix or blend.; "Hyaline casts were admixed with neutrophils"
~ alloymake an alloy of.
~ solvateundergo solvation or convert into a solvate.
~ solvatecause a solvation in (a substance).
~ reactundergo a chemical reaction; react with another substance under certain conditions.; "The hydrogen and the oxygen react"
~ buildimprove the cleansing action of.; "build detergents"
~ saturatecause (a chemical compound, vapour, solution, magnetic material) to unite with the greatest possible amount of another substance.
~ distill, make pure, purify, sublimateremove impurities from, increase the concentration of, and separate through the process of distillation.; "purify the water"
~ isolateobtain in pure form.; "The chemist managed to isolate the compound"
~ preisolateisolate beforehand.
~ ammonifytreat with ammonia; cause to undergo ammonification.
~ thoriateimpregnate with thorium oxide to increase thermionic emission.
~ cokebecome coke.; "petroleum oils coke after distillation"
~ decarboxylateremove a carboxyl group from (a chemical compound).
~ decarboxylatelose a carboxyl group.; "the compound decarboxylated"
~ denitrifyremove nitrogen from.; "Denitrify the soil"
~ detoxicate, detoxifyremove poison from.; "detoxify the soil"
~ esterifychange (a compound) into an ester.
~ etherifychange into an ether.; "etherify an alcohol"
~ acetylate, acetylise, acetylizeintroduce an acetyl group into (a chemical compound).
~ acetylate, acetylise, acetylizereceive substitution of an acetyl group.; "the compounds acetylated"
~ carboxylatetreat (a chemical compound) with carboxyl or carboxylic acid.
~ saponifyconvert into soap by hydrolizing an ester into an acid and alcohol as a result of treating it with an alkali.; "saponify oils and fats"
~ saponifybecome converted into soap by being hydrolized into an acid and alcohol as a result of being treated with an alkali.; "the oil saponified"
~ volatilise, volatilizemake volatile; cause to pass off in a vapor.
~ bindform a chemical bond with.; "The hydrogen binds the oxygen"
~ ligatebind chemically.; "The enzyme ligated"
~ desorbremove from a surface on which it is adsorbed.; "the substance was desorbed"
~ desorbgo away from the surface to which (a substance) is adsorbed.
~ demineralise, demineralizeremove the minerals or salts from.; "demineralize water"
~ isomerise, isomerizechange into an isomer.
~ isomerise, isomerizecause to change into an isomer.
~ sequesterundergo sequestration by forming a stable compound with an ion.; "The cations were sequestered"
~ transaminateundergo transfer from one compound to another.; "amino groups can transaminate"
~ fractionateobtain by a fractional process.
~ fractionateseparate into constituents or fractions containing concentrated constituents.
~ sulfurette, sulphurettecombine with sulfur.
~ absorbbecome imbued.; "The liquids, light, and gases absorb"
~ adsorbaccumulate (liquids or gases) on the surface.
~ sorb, take uptake up a liquid or a gas either by adsorption or by absorption.
~ carburetcombine with carbon.
~ formulateprepare according to a formula.
~ liberate, release, freerelease (gas or energy) as a result of a chemical reaction or physical decomposition.
~ glycerolise, glycerolizeplace in glycerol.
~ deglycerolise, deglycerolizeremove from glycerol.
~ inhibitlimit, block, or decrease the action or function of.; "inhibit the action of the enzyme"; "inhibit the rate of a chemical reaction"
~ acidicbeing or containing an acid; of a solution having an excess of hydrogen atoms (having a pH of less than 7).
~ acidhaving the characteristics of an acid.; "an acid reaction"
~ alkalic, alkalinerelating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7.; "alkaline soils derived from chalk or limestone"
~ basicof or denoting or of the nature of or containing a base.
~ amphiprotic, amphoterichaving characteristics of both an acid and a base and capable of reacting as either.
~ reversiblecapable of assuming or producing either of two states.; "a reversible chemical reaction"; "a reversible cell"
~ hydrophobiclacking affinity for water; tending to repel and not absorb water; tending not to dissolve in or mix with or be wetted by water.
~ hydrophilichaving a strong affinity for water; tending to dissolve in, mix with, or be wetted by water.
~ oleophilichaving a strong affinity for oils rather than water.
~ lipophilic, lipotropichaving an affinity for lipids.
~ criticalat or of a point at which a property or phenomenon suffers an abrupt change especially having enough mass to sustain a chain reaction.; "a critical temperature of water is 100 degrees C--its boiling point at standard atmospheric pressure"; "critical mass"; "go critical"
~ noncriticalnot critical; not at a point of abrupt change.
~ cyclicof a compound having atoms arranged in a ring structure.
~ open-chain, acyclichaving an open chain structure.
~ saturatedused especially of organic compounds; having all available valence bonds filled.; "saturated fats"
~ unsaturatedused of a compound (especially of carbon) containing atoms sharing more than one valence bond.; "unsaturated fats"
~ freeunconstrained or not chemically bound in a molecule or not fixed and capable of relatively unrestricted motion.; "free expansion"; "free oxygen"; "a free electron"
~ boundheld with another element, substance or material in chemical or physical union.
~ conjugated, conjugateof an organic compound; containing two or more double bonds each separated from the other by a single bond.
~ conjugated, conjugateformed by the union of two compounds.; "a conjugated protein"
~ heavy(physics, chemistry) being or containing an isotope with greater than average atomic mass or weight.; "heavy hydrogen"; "heavy water"
~ light(physics, chemistry) not having atomic weight greater than average.; "light water is ordinary water"
~ iodinatingcombining or causing to combine with iodine.; "the active iodinating species"; "the in vivo iodinating mechanism"
~ de-iodinatingremoving iodine from.
~ memberedhaving members; normally used in chemistry in combination with a number.
~ monovalent, univalenthaving a valence of 1.
~ multivalent, polyvalenthaving more than one valence, or having a valence of 3 or higher.
~ man-made, semisynthetic, syntheticnot of natural origin; prepared or made artificially.; "man-made fibers"; "synthetic leather"
~ clathratedesignating or relating to a compound in which one component is physically enclosed within the crystal structure of another.
~ organicrelating or belonging to the class of chemical compounds having a carbon basis.; "hydrocarbons are organic compounds"
~ inorganicrelating or belonging to the class of compounds not having a carbon basis.; "hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are called inorganic substances"
~ technical-grade, technical gradecontaining small amounts of other chemicals, hence slightly impure.; "technical-grade sulfuric acid"
~ reactiveparticipating readily in reactions.; "sodium is a reactive metal"; "free radicals are very reactive"
~ unreactive(chemistry) not reacting chemically.
~ inactive(chemistry) not participating in a chemical reaction; chemically inert.; "desired amounts of inactive chlorine"
~ inert, neutral, indifferenthaving only a limited ability to react chemically; chemically inactive.; "inert matter"; "an indifferent chemical in a reaction"
~ richhigh in mineral content; having a high proportion of fuel to air.; "a rich vein of copper"; "a rich gas mixture"
~ supernatantof a liquid; floating on the surface above a sediment or precipitate.; "the supernatant fat was skimmed off"
~ volatileevaporating readily at normal temperatures and pressures.; "volatile oils"; "volatile solvents"
~ hydrated, hydrouscontaining combined water (especially water of crystallization as in a hydrate).
~ anhydrouswithout water; especially without water of crystallization.
~ alkylicof or related to an alkyl.
~ allylicof or pertaining to the allyl radical.
~ aromatic(chemistry) of or relating to or containing one or more benzene rings.; "an aromatic organic compound"
~ azidorelating to or containing the azido group N3.
~ benzylicrelating to benzyl.
~ cacodylicof or relating to cacodyl.
~ carbocyclichaving or relating to or characterized by a ring composed of carbon atoms.
~ carbolatedcontaining or treated with carbolic acid.
~ carbonyl, carbonylicrelating to or containing the carbonyl group.
~ carboxyl, carboxylicrelating to or containing the carboxyl group or carboxyl radical.
~ mercuric, mercurousof or containing mercury.
~ valent(chemistry) having valence; usually used in combination.
~ polymorphic, polymorphousrelating to the crystallization of a compound in two or more different forms.; "polymorphous crystallization"
~ etherealof or containing or dissolved in ether.; "ethereal solution"
~ bivalent, divalenthaving a valence of two or having two valences.
~ pentavalenthaving a valence of five.
~ tetravalenthaveing a valence of four.
~ trivalenthaving a valence of three.
~ reversiblyin a reversible manner.; "reversibly convertible"
n. (substance)2. chemistrythe chemical composition and properties of a substance or object.; "the chemistry of soil"
~ substancethe real physical matter of which a person or thing consists.; "DNA is the substance of our genes"
n. (linkdef)3. alchemy, chemistry, interpersonal chemistrythe way two individuals relate to each other.; "their chemistry was wrong from the beginning -- they hated each other"; "a mysterious alchemy brought them together"
~ social relationa relation between living organisms (especially between people).